Varicose veins in the legs, symptoms and treatment

What is it? Varicose veins are a disease in which the veins are affected and thin. The main distinguishing feature is the formation of "knots" on the venous link channel.

Over time, they are filled with blood clots, which pose a serious danger to humans. In some cases, varicose veins can be accompanied by inflammation of the vascular wall.

The main reason - factors and risks

why varicose veins occur

The causes of varicose veins have not been determined definitively and concretely by medical science. However, there are reliable predisposing factors that can significantly increase the likelihood of developing this pathology:

  • lack of mobility;
  • smoking and drinking;
  • hyperglycemia;
  • atherosclerosis;
  • genetic background;
  • overweight.

Among the predisposing factors, inactivity, especially throughout the day, stands out as the leading cause of varicose veins. This factor is most important for those with inactive jobs - drivers, cashiers, government officials and computer technicians. The list is endless, as the proportion of people who are professionally involved in inactive work has increased.

Alcohol and tobacco smoking cause an increase in the diameter of the venous canal, creating a prerequisite for the development of varicose veins in the legs. The cause of the disease also lies in a person's genetic background.

This factor, unlike others, is irreversible and the patient is unable to affect it. According to statistics, many people have a genetic predisposition to varicose veins.

Therefore, they need careful care of their body, taking into account the factors that can be changed. Patients with a genetic history of varicose veins are sure to quit smoking, alcohol and an inactive lifestyle.

Excessive blood sugar, which is not metabolized by the liver into glycogen, can damage veins and arteries. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at risk of getting varicose veins.

Cholesterol deposits in the walls of blood vessels have a similar effect. This is especially noticeable in the deep veins, as they are superficially susceptible to atherosclerosis. The latter condition is facilitated by an irrational and unbalanced diet, with a predominance of animal fats and a lack of plant fiber.

The cause of varicose veins becomes very noticeable when overweight, increasing the load on the heart. This leads to slow blood circulation, especially noticeably in the lower legs. In addition, obesity is accompanied by an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, and this is the background of the development of stagnant processes in the venous vessels.

Symptoms of varicose veins in the legs

signs and symptoms of varicose veins

The first signs of varicose veins can be seen by the end - they are indicated by swelling of the legs, which is usually preceded by prolonged standing or walking. As a rule, after a night's sleep, the swelling disappears completely. However, at an advanced stage, it becomes continuous and continuous, regardless of the daytime.

The presence of edematous syndrome, which is localized in the feet and ankles, can be checked independently. For this, the circumference is measured at the level of the ankle joint twice a day:

  • after waking up
  • before bed.

If the difference is 1 cm or more, this confirms a violation of the existing venous outflow and such a person should consult a phlebologist. In the early stages of the disease, these symptoms quickly disappear after the person has been in a horizontal position for several hours.

The early development of varicose veins is characterized by the appearance of prominent varicose veins on the surface of the skin. They can be single or multiple. Often, they are detected from the inner surface of the feet and thighs.

Prolonged standing or walking, as well as prolonged sitting, lead to new symptoms of varicose veins in the legs:

  • fullness, especially in calves;
  • heaviness in the legs;
  • their rapid fatigue;
  • acute pain or soreness, most noticeable at the site of varicose veins;
  • cramps develop in the calf muscles, especially in the evening and also during sleep.

The appearance of convulsive cramps is associated with metabolic disorders. A prerequisite for this is developing venous stasis. Against this background, the tissue undergoes a state of hypoxia, which results in increased muscle readiness.

Therefore, if a person has seizures, Doppler ultrasonography is definitely indicated. With its help, the condition of the venous link in the body is assessed, as varicose veins at an early stage can become asymptomatic.

Clinical symptoms of varicose veins, photo

clinical symptoms of varicose veins

Clinical symptoms of leg varicose veins help indicate this diagnosis. Therefore, we summarize it:

  • pain in the legs while walking;
  • painful sensations detected by palpation of inflamed veins;
  • headache in lower limbs;
  • night and night muscle cramps;
  • feeling heavy and full in the lower part of the foot, especially in the ankle area;
  • convoluted veins visually defined with varicose veins - it increases above the level of the skin (these symptoms are determined only by the superficial form of the disease, with the deep veins impossible to identify these symptoms);
  • swelling of the legs (with varicose veins, they decrease in a horizontal position, unlike other diseases).

Treatment of varicose veins

Treatment of varicose veins in the legs should be done thoroughly, including non-drug methods and pharmacological corrections. When there are signs, surgical intervention is performed. This is a general principle to help patients with varicose veins.

From non-drug methods, it is recommended to wear tights, bandages or special elastic stockings for this disease. They create the compression needed to keep the veins in good condition. Blood flows more easily to the heart, and venous congestion is eliminated. In such cases, the vascular wall is unable to expand with the formation of subsequent nodes.

Physical activity plays a role as a cure and prevention, which helps prevent disease progression:

how to treat varicose veins
  • runs fast;
  • gymnastics;
  • various activities on the water;
  • swim.

However, not all physical exercises can be recommended for varicose veins. Patients with this diagnosis should exclude sports training with heavy loads on the legs:

  • weightlifting;
  • tennis;
  • jump.

The next stage of treatment is pharmacological correction. The choice of the drug is made by the doctor. Prescription drugs are divided into several groups:

  1. Vein tone regulator - venotonic medicine.
  2. Drugs that help prevent dangerous blood clots.
  3. Anticoagulants, including ointments based on them.

Surgical treatment of varicose veins

In case of ineffective drug therapy, surgical treatment is indicated. This consists of the removal of pathologically altered veins or the introduction of a solution that allows the varicose walls to be glued together (sclerotherapy).

Surgical treatment of this disease is characterized by high efficiency. However, you should not forget the operational risks. For example, obese people have a higher rate than thin people. The duration of surgery also plays an important role in determining the risk of surgery - the shorter the operation, the less likely the formation of thrombus. Therefore, it is very important to choose a highly qualified surgeon who removes the vein quickly and skillfully.

Modern phlebology has a variety of surgical methods for varicose veins. The choice to choose one or the other is determined by the specific clinical case. In this case, the doctor must take into account the following factors:

methods of treating varicose veins
  • are complications of this disease;
  • what is the corresponding disease;
  • what is the level of operational risk for the patient;
  • most likely it will recur, and so on.

The most common techniques are:

  1. Phlebectomy- surgery for varicose veins, which involves the removal of pathologically altered veins. This intervention was first practiced in the early 20th century. It is quite effective and is still in use today, but with some improvements. Surgery today performs phlebectomy according to various modifications, depending on the author making the change. This surgical intervention can be performed on large vessels as well as on superficial surfaces of small diameter. To remove the vein, small incisions were made in the skin and the affected vessels were removed through a probe.
  2. Minimum invasive technique- implies freezing with electric current or the use of liquid nitrogen freezing. Recently, laser therapy has been widely used. It has fewer side effects, is more effective and is technically simpler. Its main disadvantage is its high cost.

Folk remedies for the treatment of varicose veins

At home, traditional medicine is used to relieve symptoms and treat varicose veins in the legs, it enhances the effect of pharmacological therapy prescribed by a doctor. The following tools may be recommended:

  • Net.Crop leaves are dried. After that, boil water in a volume of 500 ml and fill. It is better to do this in a thermos. The infusion time is about half an hour. Using a sieve, strain and take the third part three times a day 50 minutes before eating.
  • Apple cider vinegar.This increases the activity of the clotting system and anticoagulants, helping to normalize the condition of blood vessels. To achieve the therapeutic effect, they are lubricated with lesions twice a day, and also taken orally at the rate of 2 teaspoons of vinegar per glass of water. You should drink 2 to 3 glasses a day.
  • Fresh potatoesis ​​ideal for speeding up the healing of trophic ulcers formed against the long history of varicose veins. To do this, rub it on a grater and apply the resulting gruel on the ulcer defect with a 1 cm thick layer, cover with a bandage on top. Exposure must be 4–5 hours. Afterwards, the gruel is changed to a new one or the bandage is moistened with freshly obtained potato juice.
  • White acacia flowers- provide colors used externally. It is very effective for thrombophlebitis (inflammation of venous thrombosis) The affected area is lubricated and rubbed profusely.
  • Cone hop.Estimated calculation - 1 tablespoon of crushed raw material and 200 ml of boiling water. Heat on a steam bath for 15 minutes. Take 1 glass three times during the day before meals. Local therapy is also carried out - in places where the veins are most affected, compresses are made (gauze is soaked in the prepared preparation).
  • Kalanchoe leaves- provide color. To do this, take a half-liter bottle, fill with chopped leaves to half, fill with vodka or 40% alcohol to the upper limit. Insist for a week indoors without direct sunlight, occasionally vibrating. Then strain. Rub the tingtur on the feet before bed, especially with caution on the affected area. It is best to do this by massaging the movement from the bottom up, that is, towards the venous outflow. The duration of treatment with this drug is 4 months (after the load, the pain in the legs must be reduced).
  • White cabbage.Break one sheet and roll well with a rolling pin. On the one hand, to be applied to the affected area, oil with vegetable oil. Fix with a bandage for a day. This is an excellent remedy for thrombophlebitis. The course of therapy is 1 month.
  • Celandine.The texture of the plant should be eaten three times a day, 10 drops diluted in 1 tablespoon of milk. Take before meals.

Which doctor should I contact?

Not everyone knows which doctor to contact when they detect signs of varicose veins. Previously, therapists were involved in the treatment of this pathology, and when complications appeared, surgeons. However, the expansion of medicine contributes to a special distribution - phlebology, which "spins" from angiology (the science of blood vessels).

Phlebologists deliberately study only veins, not all channels. But this does not mean that, if necessary, they will not be able to make an accurate diagnosis, excluding other diseases. This is an expert with a broad view, but aimed at veins.


Varicose vein prevention aims to eliminate variable risk factors. Therefore, it is recommended:

  • increase physical activity;
  • quit smoking and drinking alcohol;
  • to lose weight when overweight;
  • normalizes nutrition by eliminating atherogenic foods;
  • reduces the amount of sugary foods in the diet.